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Development Rap

There are some theories that I must explain
Formulated on and regarding the brain
Heed my words when I tell you plain
Of the theories that a man named Erikson’s lain

It’s quite convenient I can say with one breath
That Erikson’s theories cover birth to death
Psychological development’s always on a roll
Seemingly affected by cultural norms and goals
Aspect based growth of the mind is so
That it seems to parallel the biological
Just as a fetus grows from conception to birth
Thus is the same of psychological turf

A set of growth cycles is explained in eight stages
Each of which covers a certain ranges of ages
Trust versus mistrust from birth and one year
While autonomy versus shame and doubt follows near
Next, initiative versus guilt from four to five
Then industry versus inferiority is described
Six to eleven years are the ages of inclusion
Twelve to eighteen? Identity versus role confusion
Young adulthood sees intimacy versus isolation
Middle age met with generativity versus stagnation
The final stage comes, death crisp in the air
Old age courts integrity versus despair

You thought that Erikson’s eight stages were great?
Wait till we get started on Piaget
From the very first to the very last stage
Piaget’s theories are all the rage

Infants and toddlers sure have it made
When they’re hitting up on the sensorimotor stage
Their object permanence comes down to this
If they can’t see an object then it doesn’t exist
This all changes as the child gets older
Becoming preoperational as a preschooler
Having developed deferred imitation
Symbols and language are the new sensation
From seven to eleven operation’s concrete
Generalizing known facts but
Abstraction’s where they’re weak
At eleven years old they’ve reached their goal
Cognition’s both formal and operational
Dealing with abstracts and hypotheses
And analyzing problems systematically

Vygotsky is the name of the man that comes next
Explaining the mind to those still perplexed
But the man lays it out in a different context
Growth comes from the people
To whom a child connects
Authority is the source of psychological tools
Given both by parents and the children’s schools
Vygostsky was a man who stood by the stance
Cognitive growth’s from interactions
With the intellectually advanced
Cultural forces, peers, and adults alike
These are the things which impacted the mind
One learns language, concepts, and procedures
From knowledge passed down by way of one’s teachers

Finally, a man named Kohlberg chimes in
Putting forth a reason why moral reas’ning begins
Morality develops in six different stages
Though none of them link to any given ages
Punishment-obedience is the orientation seen first
One stays out of trouble ‘cause punishment’s the worst
Instrumental relativist is the orientation seen next
Obedience should bring about return on what they invest
Then comes good boy-nice girl orientation
Impressing others is one’s primary fixation
Law-and-order orientation is next stage seen
Respecting authority ensures stability
Postconventional morality brings us in to step five
Mutual respect and rights are how people thrive
Stage number six is a rare sensation
It’s the universal ethical principal orientation
Morality and ethics defined by you alone
Consistently followed, consistently shown

Four theories explained with little exclusion
Thus it seems we’ve reach out conclusion

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© 2018 Michael Halstead